Vulcan 20mm - The followers are driven linearly in and out of the associated breech, successively chambering, firing and extracting the rounds. Итак, что вы должны дела First tests were conducted with the late 19th century Gatlings, fitted with electrical drive instead of manually operated crank; this immediately resulted in the rate of fire of about 4 rounds per minute, which was very impressive it must be noted, that such tests were first conducted in early s, but lead to no practical results at that time - there were no need in the rate of fire of up to 3 RpM. In , GE delivered ten initial model A.
Покупки по категориямПосле испытаний обеих систем в Форте Блисс, Техас база vulcan 20mm обороны армии СШАони были приняты на vulcan 20mm. Несамоходная модель, названная M, стала заменой для счетверенной 12,7-мм установки М М еще остается на вооружении армии США, в воздушно-десантных и аэромобильных дивизиях. Каждая такая дивизия имеет в своем составе дивизион противовоздушной обороны, состоящий из штаба и четырех батарей. Каждая батарея, в свою очередь, состоит из штаба и трех огневых взводов с 4 установками M в каждом.
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Тяжелые снайперские винтовки Anzio Ironworks » Военное обозрениеAlternately, the cannon allows the carrying aircraft to engage in strafing runs in support of ground troops, though the 20mm round is not particularly effective against heavily armored vehicles. Mark 15 Phalanx CIWS многократно применялся в настоящем бою для отражения ракетных атак, но не всегда успешно. Статьи без источников объекты менее указанного лимита: The links connection the rounds often bent, broke or stretched, causing the gun to jam. The case will be steel or plastic. The next generation of fighters built post-Vietnam incorporated the M61 gun internally. При помощи нескольких дополнительных приводов, обычный электроники и компьютерных программ, оружие-сторож Нерф умеет автоматом распознать, отследить цель, а потом и поразить ее. This variant uses an electric motor to spin up the barrel cluster, then sustains itself via gas operation.
HOW MUCH PAPER DOES IT TAKE TO STOP A 20MM
Тяжелые снайперские винтовки Anzio IronworksBoth pods ejected vulcan 20mm cases and unfired rounds rather than retaining them. This means that the firing rate is multiplied by the number of barrels, vulcan 20mm six barrels are being loaded in parallel. Vulcan 20mm at the rear of all projectiles is a band of soft metal that seats in the vulcan 20mm of the gun barrel. Магазин Nerf Vulcan имеет емкость в зарядов, в качестве поражающих частей могут быть дротики либо стрелы. Usually, AH-1G "Cobra" carried one or two Miniguns in its chin turret, with the 2 or 4 thousands rounds of ammunition. Пулемётная ленталибо беззвеньевая подача. As a point of trivia, the cancellation of Mauler and its naval variant also led to the adoption of the RIM-7 Sea Sparrow by the US Navy which had been anticipating the navalized Sea Mauler and had already designed the Knox -class frigates around it and the development of the British Rapier SAM system.
M61 A1 Vulcan
The gun itself is located in the upper port side of the fuselage, with the gun port on the port side of the cockpit. The ammo drum has a round capacity. The gun controller is the electronics unit which actually controls the firing of the gun. A voltage pulse is sent out from the gun controller to fire each round in a firing burst.
At the end of a burst when the trigger is released, the gun clears itself. In the clearing operation, 5 to 9 unfired rounds are cycled through the gun without firing pulses, and are fed back to the ammo drum. These rounds are carried for the duration of the flight as spent rounds and cannot be used. The SMS Stores Management System has a rounds remaining counting function which counts each firing pulse from the gun controller and subtracts these from the loaded number of rounds.
In the clearing operation, however, there are no pulses or any way of determining the actual number of rounds cleared, therefore the SMS assumes 7. Due to this fact there can be a discrepancy between the rounds remaining on the SCP and the actual number of rounds left to be fired.
This discrepancy can become larger with increasing number of clearings. The gun takes about 0. Some critics notably defense analyst Pierre Sprey in a paper called First Rounds Count argue that the aim is at it truest when the pilot pulls the trigger, and that it starts wandering off almost immediately. A close-up of the gunport of a Dutch FB after a live-firing exercise. Hot gasses from the muzzle have left carbon traces, which -if not removed- corode the paint.
The copper color is copper-grease, applied to the gunport to protect it from the hot gasses during firing. Burns from the gasses are difficult to clean after a firing period. A revolver cannon such as the Mauser BK27 fitted in the Tornado does not have this problem, as it reaches its maximum rate of fire instantly. The BK27 fires at 1, rpm, or 28 rounds per second. The rate of fire of 6, rpm or rps means that shells are spaced by 0. A MiG, with a length of 56ft 5in Therefore, the Fulcrum will be hit at least times if the aim is true Quite different from the typical movie sound-effects, the M61 sounds more like a heavy concrete drill.
AU file format is currently available - most browser however support this format. The components that make up a complete round are a brass cartridge case, an electric primer,propellant powder, and the projectile. The projectile is fired when an electrical pulse is applied to the primer.
The resulting flame passes through a gas vent leading to the propellant chamber and ignites the propellant. As the propellant burns, it forms a gas which forces the projectile through the gun barrel. The only significant difference between the five types of ammunition is in the projectile. Для модернизированного варианта пушки М61А1 была разработана беззвеньевая система подачи патронов. Пушка М61А1 стала позднее стандартным вооружением американских истребителей. Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии.
Текущая версия страницы пока не проверялась опытными участниками и может значительно отличаться от версии , проверенной 17 сентября ; проверки требуют 5 правок. У этого термина существуют и другие значения, см. Война во Вьетнаме , Война в Персидском заливе , Война против терроризма.
Government Printing Office, Вы можете помочь проекту, расширив текущую статью с помощью перевода. Для улучшения этой статьи желательно: Найти и оформить в виде сносок ссылки на независимые авторитетные источники , подтверждающие написанное. Оружие по алфавиту Появились в году Автоматические пушки Авиационные пушки и пулемёты Артиллерия калибра 20 мм Системы с вращающимся блоком стволов Многоствольное оружие Военная продукция General Electric.
Таковой тип орудия, с высочайшими показателями скорострельности и большой плотностью огня, разрабатывался в качестве вооружения для реактивных тактических истребителей ВВС США. Прототипом для сотворения первого эталона шестиствольного М61 Vulcan послужил германский ти ствольный авиапулемет Fokker-Leimberger, в базе конструкции которого заложена револьверно-батарейная схема Гатлинга. Пользуясь этой схемой была сотворена отлично равновесная конструкция многоствольного пулемета с блоком крутящихся стволов, при этом все нужные операции производились за один оборот блока.
М61 Vulcan — это шестиствольный авиационный пулемет пушка имеющий воздушное остывание ствола и боевое снаряжение патроном 20 х мм с электрокапсюльным типом воспламенения. Система подачи боеприпасов в шестиствольный пулемет Vulcan без звеньевая, из цилиндрического магазина емкость которого патронов.
Пулемет с магазином соединены 2-ух конвейерной подачей, при которой отстреленные гильзы ворачиваются назад в магазин при помощи возвратимого сборочного потока. Весь массив патронов в магазине движется вдоль его оси, крутится же только выполненный в форме спирали центральный направляющий ротор, меж витками которого размещены боеприпасы.
При стрельбе, из магазина синхронизировано извлекаются два патрона, а с обратной стороны в него помещаются две стрелянные гильзы, которые потом размещаются в конвейере. Стреляющий механизм имеет внешнюю схему привода с мощностью 14,7 кВт.
Vulcan 20mm Содержание
Click on Picture to enlarge. The gun system is mated to a linkless ammunition storage and handling system. The Gatling gun had exceeded that rate of fire in Army Ordnance Research and Development Service engineers dusted-off the old Gatling principle and adapted it to create the 6, spm M61 series Vulcan 20mm Gatling gun.
The Gatling principle permitted a high rate of fire while reducing heat and barrel erosion. In , GE delivered ten initial model A. T45 guns for evaluation. Thirty-three model C T45 guns were delivered in in three calibers: After extensive testing, the T 20mm gun was selected for further development.
In the T 20mm gun was standardized by the U. Air Force as the M61 20mm Vulcan aircraft gun. The M61 20mm Vulcan is an externally powered, six-barrel, rotary-fire gun having a rate of fire of up to spm.
The firing rate is selectible at 4, spm or 6, spm. The gun fires standard electrically primed 20mm ammunition. The M61A1 is hydraulically or ram-air driven, electrically controlled, and uses a link less ammunition feed system.
The six rotating barrels contribute to long weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. The internally mounted 20mm cannon system is common to all versions of the F This system combines the widely used F-4, F, F M61 cannon with rounds A through D models or rounds E model of ammunition.
The cannon can be loaded with target practice, armor piercing, or high explosive incendiary rounds. The primary use of the cannon is in the extremely short range less than feet air-to-air environment, where more sophisticated air-to-air missiles are ineffective. Alternately, the cannon has limited usefulness in a ground strafing role. The M61A2 is a lightweight version of the M61A1.
Most of the weight savings was achieved by machining down the barrel thickness. It has been the principal cannon armament of United States military aircraft for five decades. The higher speeds of jet-engine fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire.
While captured German designs principally the Mauser MGC showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannon, the practical rate of fire of such a design was still limited by ammunition feed and barrel wear concerns. The Army wanted something better, combining extremely high rate of fire with exceptional reliability. In response to this requirement, General Electric Armament Division resurrected an old idea: The original Gatling gun had fallen out of favor because of the need for an external power source to rotate the barrel assembly, but the new generation of turbojet-powered fighters offered sufficient electrical power to operate the gun, and electric operation offered superior reliability to a gas operated weapon.
With multiple barrels, the rate of fire per barrel could be lower than a single-barrel revolver cannon while still giving a superior total rate of fire. The Army issued GE the contract in for "Project Vulcan," a six-barrel weapon capable of firing 6, rounds per minute. Although European designers were moving towards heavier 30 mm weapons for better hitting power, the U. The first GE prototypes of the T were ground-fired in The development of the F revealed that the Vulcan later re-designated M61 suffered problems with its linked ammunition, being prone to mis-feed and presenting a foreign-object damage FOD hazard with discarded links.
A link-less feed system was developed for the upgraded M61A1, which subsequently became the standard cannon armament of U. It is likely to remain in service for at least another decade. General Electric sold design and production for the M61 along with their other rotary cannon to General Dynamics. Description The Vulcan is a Gatling gun: The multiple barrels provide both a very high rate of fire--around rounds per second--and contribute to long weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation.
Mean time between jams or failures is in excess of 10, rounds, making it an extremely reliable weapon. The success of the Vulcan Project and its subsequent progeny, the very-high-speed Gatling gun, has led to guns of the same configuration being referred to as Vulcan Cannon , which can sometimes confuse nomenclature on the subject. Most aircraft versions of the M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed.
The gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system of flexible drive shafts. The round is fired by an electric priming system where an electrical current from a firing lead passes through the firing pin to the primer as each round is rotated into the firing position.
The self-powered version, the GAU-4 called M in Army service , is gas-operated, tapping gun gas from three of the six barrels to operate the mechanism. The self-powered Vulcan weighs about 10 lb 4. Click on Picture to enlarge M61 ammo belt The initial M61 used linked, belted ammunition, but the ejection of spent links created considerable and ultimately insuperable problems.
The original weapon was soon replaced by the M61A1, with a linkless feed system. Depending on the application, the feed system can be either single-ended ejecting spent cases and unfired rounds or double-ended returning casings back to the magazine. A disadvantage of the M61 is that the bulk of the weapon, its feed system, and ammunition drum makes it difficult to fit it into a densely packed airframe.
The feed system must be custom-designed for each application, adding lb kg to the complete weapon. Most aircraft installations are double-ended, because the ejection of empty cartridges can cause a foreign-object damage FOD hazard for jet engines and because the retention of spent cases assists in maintaining the center of gravity of the aircraft. The first aircraft to carry the M61A1 was the D model of the F, starting in A lighter version of the Vulcan developed for use on the F Raptor, the M61A2, is mechanically the same as the M61A1, but with thinner barrels to reduce overall mass to lb The rotor and housing have also been modified to remove any piece of metal not absolutely needed for operation and replaces some metal components with lighter weight materials.
Until the late s the M61 primarily used the M50 series of ammunition in various types, typically firing a gram 3. The PGU has not been without problems, however. A USAF safety report noted 24 premature detonation mishaps causing serious damage in many cases in 12 years, compared to only two such mishaps in the entire recorded history of the M56 round.
Disadvantages Despite its reliability and tremendous rate of fire, the Vulcan has been increasingly criticized in recent years for its limited performance. The ballistic characteristics of the 20 mm round are relatively poor, with the projectile losing energy quickly, and its destructive power and accuracy are lacking compared to the heavier mm rounds favored by European and Russian air forces.
Efforts to develop a larger-caliber replacement for the M61 have thus far had limited success. The USAF spent a great deal of money in s on the 25 mm GAU-7 cannon for the F Eagle, using caseless ammunition, but it proved to be a failure and was abandoned in favor of the Vulcan. The five-barrel GAU Equalizer 25 mm gun used in the AV-8B Harrier II is a Vulcan derivative, but despite greater hitting power since it fires a heavier round at virtually the same muzzle velocity it had yet to find wide application except for the F Lightning-II which was reduced to four barrel.
Another criticism is that despite its high rate of fire, the Gatling-type weapon is hampered by the time it takes for the weapon to spin up to its maximum rotation speed about 0. To overcome this shortfall, the M61A2, with its lower inertia can be powered by a hydraulic motor with 5, P.
Applications The Vulcan was first used in the F Starfighter. It was designed into Air Force versions of the A-7D where it replaced the Naval standard dual cannon, and subsequently adopted by the Navy on future fighters. Most significantly, it was designed into an air superiority version of the F-4E Phantom II which lacked a cannon in all previous versions since it was believed that beyond-visual-range AIM-7 Sparrow missiles made guns obsolete.
Combat experience in Vietnam showed that a gun could be more effective than guided missiles in many combat situations, and that a gun pod was less satisfactory than an internal gun. Both pods ejected empty casings and unfired rounds rather than retaining them. Both pods contained 1, rounds of ammunition, with a loaded weight of 1, lb kg and 1, lb kg respectively. Unfortunately, during service in the Vietnam War the pods proved to be relatively inaccurate: A variant with much shorter barrels, designated the M was also developed for use on the M35 Armament Subsystem for use on the AH-1G Cobra helicopter.
This variant fed from ammunition boxes fitted to the landing skid and was developed to provide the AH-1 helicopter with a longer ranging suppressive fire system before the adoption of the M97 Universal Turret mounting the M cannon.
It fires standard M50 ammunition at 6, rounds per minute rate selectable in certain installations. The lesson of WWII was that the German, Italian and Japanese fighters could reach out and touch the Americans with their cannon main armament, while the latter had to get up close and personal with the. The 20mm Hispano carried by the P was a relatively low velocity weapon.
Results were high rate of fire and a high rate of barrel wear out. With propellants of the time and period metallurgy it was a good idea but one that was not ready until new technology came along. Gatling in the 19th century. The Vulcan was first fired in pre-production form in , and made its first flight in the Lockheed F Initial problems with the gas bleed resulted in a temporary suspension of firing tests, until a better venting system for the F gun compartment was designed.
Today, after a period of neglect when guns were thought to be rendered obsolete by missiles , the M61 in one form or another, is an integral part of the armament of modern fighters such as the F, F and of course the F Construction The multiple-barrels cannon offers both advantages in firing rate and in barrel life.
As the 6 barrels revolve, they proceed through the different stages of the gun firing cycle. Each barrel is fired as it passes through the top position, after which the spent case is extracted and ejected, and a new round is fed and chambered - all at different positions on the circle described by the revolving barrel.
This means that the firing rate is multiplied by the number of barrels, as six barrels are being loaded in parallel. Major drawback is that ammunition is consumed at a vast rate, requiring large ammo magazines.
The gun is fed through long linked belts of ammo, and although the gun appeared from early on in the development to be extremely reliable, the unprecedented rate of fire caused severe problems with these belts.
The links connection the rounds often bent, broke or stretched, causing the gun to jam. Furthermore, provisions had to be made to dispose of the links. As a result, development of a new linkless feed system quickly started.
Inside the drum, the rounds tips to the middle are placed in a giant Archimedean screw which moves them into the conveyor belt feeding the gun. In the F and some other installations M61A1 installations are tailor-made to each aircraft type , the empty case is transported back to the drum via a second conveyor belt. Both conveyor belts are housed in strong flexible ducts, and are powered by the gun, as well as the screw inside the drum which is driven via a high-power flexible coupling.
The stationary breech housing has a deep elliptical slot in its inner wall in which run 6 cam followers, on the breech of each barrel. The followers are driven linearly in and out of the associated breech, successively chambering, firing and extracting the rounds. The breech rotor, to which are attached the 6 barrels, revolves inside the breech housing. At the muzzle end, the 6 barrels are fitted in a clamp.
Пулемет Вулкан — ТТХ М61In response to this requirement, General Electric Armament Division resurrected an old idea: Мы или наши посетители с радостью vulcan 20mm на. По линкору vulcan 20mm выпущены две противокорабельные ракеты HY A lesson of World War II air combat was that German, Italian and Japanese fighters could attack American aircraft from long range with their cannon main armament. The grooves in the barrel are twisted so that the projectile receives a rotating motion as it travels through and leaves the gun barrel. Оригинальная пушка Гатлинга не получила распространения из-за большой потребляемой мощности привода вращения блока стволов, однако реактивные истребители конца х годов располагали мощными электрическими и гидравлическими системами, что позволяло применить на них многоствольные пушки. M61 Vulcan на Викискладе.
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